The United States is the global leader in developing and using artificial intelligence (AI), but it may not be for long. Succeeding in AI requires more than just having leading companies make investments. It requires a healthy ecosystem of AI companies, robust AI inputs—including skills, research, and data—and organizations that are motivated and free to use AI. And that requires the federal government to support the development and adoption of AI. Many other countries, including China, France, and the United Kingdom, are developing significant initiatives to gain global market share in AI. While the U.S. government has taken some steps, it lacks a comprehensive strategy to proactively spur the development and adoption of AI. This report explains why a national AI strategy is necessary to bolster U.S. competitiveness, strengthen national security, and maximize the societal benefits that the country could derive from AI. It then lays out six overarching goals and 40 specific recommendations for Congress and the administration to support AI development and adoption.