Quantum computing leverages principles from quantum mechanics, a branch of physics concerned primarily with the unique behaviors of subatomic particles such as electrons and photons, to enable new, extremely powerful computing architectures. Quantum computers use quantum bits (qubits), which operate according to the quantum laws of “superposition” and “entanglement,” that enable them to do things traditional computers cannot. Because quantum computing is still early in its development phase, many assume that practical applications are still years away. In reality, as this report documents, organizations are already using quantum computers today in real-world applications. As other nations rapidly scale up their investments to develop and use quantum computing, U.S. policymakers should ensure the United States remains a leader. In particular, investing in near-term quantum computing applications would bolster the development of longer-term use cases of the technology, thereby helping to cement U.S. economic competitiveness and protect national security.